bno护照是什么意思(bno护照移民英国政策)

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7月1日,在港区国安法正式实施后,英国首相约翰逊在国会发言时表示,英方将向30万英国国民(海外)护照(BNO)持有者和近300万符合资质持有BNO的港人提供“5 1”升级方案,即让BNO持有者享5年有限居留许可,之后可申请定居,继而再定居满1年后可申请做英国公民。


中国外交部发言人赵立坚在2日的例行记者会对此做出回应:英方无视中方严正立场,执意改变政策,为有关人员在英居留和入籍提供路径,严重违背自身承诺,严重违反国际法和国际关系基本准则。


而近日,网络上出现谣言称“(香港)政府很快会刊登宪报,要公务员宣誓及强制放弃BNO”,随即香港特区政府发表新闻公报澄清:并无此事。


BNO成为了舆论的焦点,但它到底是什么?为什么会引起争议?英国政府此次的提议又意味着什么呢?


London recently announced that Hong Kong residents holding British National Overseas (BNO) passports can come to Britain and seek citizenship after a five-year period, a plan which Beijing has expressed firm opposition to.
The announcement came after the Law of the People's Republic of China on Safeguarding National Security in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) took effect on Tuesday.
Meanwhile, some media reports on Friday said the HKSAR government was planning to force its employees to give up their BNO passports. The HKSAR government has denied the claim.
As the BNO passport becomes a focus in the ongoing dispute, CGTN explains what it is, what the British proposal means and why the proposal is controversial.


只是旅行证件,并不享有公民权利


Travel document without citizenship rights


BNO是由英国政府在1997年香港回归之前发给香港人的一种护照,它其实可以被看成一种旅行证件,并不享有公民权利。BNO持有者被允许免签到访英国,但停留时间在六个月内,没有居留权也不能在英工作,同时不享受任何公共福利。


The BNO passport is basically a travel document that does not carry citizenship rights. It was issued to people in Hong Kong by the United Kingdom before Hong Kong returned to China in 1997.
The passport allows its carriers to visit Britain visa-free for six months, but they do not have the right of abode and cannot work in the country, nor do they have access to public funds, like government benefits.


目前在香港有大约30万人持有BNO,同时另有250万到270万人有资格申请。


英国表示将把BNO持有者免签进入英国的时间从六个月延长到五年,并允许他们在英国工作、学习和定居,并在一年后可申请成为正式公民。这些变化可能影响多达300万香港人。


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中国:英国违背自身立场和承诺


China: UK is breaking its own position


上周四,中国驻英国大使馆发言人就BNO一事答记者问。


发言人表示,关于英国国民(海外)护照问题,英方曾与中方互换备忘录,明确承诺不给予持有英国国民(海外)护照的香港中国公民在英居留权。中国全国人大常委会在《关于<中华人民共和国国籍法>在香港特区实施的几个问题的解释》中明确指出,所有香港中国同胞,不论其是否持有“英国属土公民护照”或者“英国国民(海外)护照”,都是中国公民。


如果英方执意单方面改变有关做法,不仅违背自身立场和承诺,也违反国际法和国际关系基本准则。我们对此坚决反对,并保留采取相应措施的权利。中方敦促英方客观公正看待香港特区维护国家安全立法问题,尊重中方立场和关切,不以任何方式干涉香港事务。


A spokesperson for the Chinese Embassy in Britain said Thursday that China firmly opposes Britain's offer to provide more privileges for Hong Kong residents holding BNO passports, and reserves the right to take corresponding measures.
The embassy's spokesperson said that with regard to the BNO passport, in memoranda exchanged between the two sides, the British side declared it would not confer the right of abode to Chinese citizens in Hong Kong holding BNO passports.
"If the British side makes unilateral changes to the relevant practice, it will breach its own position and pledges as well as international law and basic norms governing international relations," the spokesperson said.
The spokesperson also urged the UK to view objectively and fairly the national security legislation for Hong Kong, respect China's position and concerns, and refrain from interfering in Hong Kong affairs in any form.


“虚伪的”提议


'Hypocritical' offer


一边,英国表示要为多达300万香港居民提供工作权和获得未来英国国籍的途径,可另一边,疫情下的英国自身却面临着严重的失业问题。


英国国家统计局的数据显示,五月份申请失业救济的人数上升至280万人,是1993年以来的最高水平。专家预测,由于新冠疫情,这一数字今年可能激增至350万人。


在这种情况下,鲍里斯却提议,允许来自香港的BNO持有者在获得国籍之前申请在英国工作。批评人士说,这会给英国的就业系统造成巨大的压力。


While the UK offers up to 3 million Hong Kong residents the right to work and a pathway to future British citizenship, the country itself is facing serious unemployment problems amid the COVID-19 pandemic.
Data from the UK National Statistics office shows the number of people claiming unemployment benefits rose to 2.8 million in May, the highest since 1993. Experts predict this number could surge to 3.5 million this year as a result of the pandemic.


But according to British Prime Minister Boris Johnson's offer, BNO passport holders from Hong Kong would be able to apply to work in the UK before gaining citizenship. Critics say the strain on the country's job system would be too great.


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"I don't think that the government has actually thought through its policy in Hong Kong and what would it means if these three million people were coming into Britain," Ben Chacko, a British political commentator and editor of the Morning Star, told CGTN.
"I think they just picked a number out in the air in order to annoy the Chinese government without thinking through the consequences of what they are doing," Chacko added.
一些批评人士还认为,这一提议与英国的移民政策不符。


夺回边境的控制权是英国脱欧的主要重点之一。英国一直对移民持强硬立场。 今年2月,英国政府在移民政策中引入了积分制,获得积分的方法包括达到一定的收入水平和拥有一定的工作经验。然而,鲍里斯的提议对来自香港的BNO持有者没有设置收入上的要求。


The offer also contradicts the UK's immigration policies, he suggested.


Taking back control of its borders was one of the UK's main focuses in Brexit. And the country has been taking a tough stance on immigration. In February, the British government introduced a points-based system for migrants. Ways to gain points include reaching a certain income level and work experience.
However, there would be no income test requirement in the path to citizenship or cap on numbers for BNO passport holders from Hong Kong.
"I think that this shows how hypocritical the government is, because actually there's a global refugee crisis, there are thousands of people who are drowning in the Mediterranean trying to reach to safety in Europe and the British government does not let these people in, and yet suddenly they are offering this ridiculous figure of three million people coming from Hong Kong," Chacko said.
"If they (the British government) are so concerned about protecting people, there are lots of refugees that they could be taking in," he said.


标签: 移民

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